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We can also construct special tabulations (known as paradigms) to illustrate contrasts and systematic variation, as shown in 1.3 for three verbs. At the most abstract level, a text is a representation of a real or fictional speech event, and the time-course of that event carries over into the text itself.

Five of the sentences read by each speaker are also read by six other speakers (for comparability).

The remaining three sentences read by each speaker were unique to that speaker (for coverage). You can access its documentation in the usual way, using This gives us a sense of what a speech processing system would have to do in producing or recognizing speech in this particular dialect (New England).

Structured collections of annotated linguistic data are essential in most areas of NLP, however, we still face many obstacles in using them.

The goal of this chapter is to answer the following questions: Along the way, we will study the design of existing corpora, the typical workflow for creating a corpus, and the lifecycle of corpus.

The inclusion of speaker demographics brings in many more independent variables, that may help to account for variation in the data, and which facilitate later uses of the corpus for purposes that were not envisaged when the corpus was created, such as sociolinguistics.

A third property is that there is a sharp division between the original linguistic event captured as an audio recording, and the annotations of that event.

TIMIT was developed by a consortium including Texas Instruments and MIT, from which it derives its name.

It was designed to provide data for the acquisition of acoustic-phonetic knowledge and to support the development and evaluation of automatic speech recognition systems.

Two sentences, read by all speakers, were designed to bring out dialect variation: The remaining sentences were chosen to be phonetically rich, involving all phones (sounds) and a comprehensive range of diphones (phone bigrams).

Additionally, the design strikes a balance between multiple speakers saying the same sentence in order to permit comparison across speakers, and having a large range of sentences covered by the corpus to get maximal coverage of diphones.

It may come with annotations such as part-of-speech tags, morphological analysis, discourse structure, and so forth.

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